Types of Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer is a common disease condition among men, especially among older men.

types of prostate cancer

Prostate cancer is a well-known disease among men. Especially older men. And over the years so many researches have been carried out on this type of cancer. From many research, types of prostate cancer have been discovered. And, with this, it has become a whole lot easier for doctors to treat prostate cancer. So in a bit, we’ll be having a look at the different types.

Years ago, doctors didn’t find it easy treating prostate cancer. That’s because a general treatment method was used for all cancer types. And this reduced the effectivity of the treatment method. But with advanced studies, each prostate cancer type can now be treated as a single entity. And with that treating prostate cancer patients has become more specific and effective.

 

What is Prostate Cancer?

Prostate cancer is a common disease condition among men, especially among older men. Women are also known to have prostate cancer but it’s very rare. Prostate cancer starts with enlargement of the prostate gland. The prostate gland is an accessory gland that contributes to semen. Actually, the prostate gland contributes about 70% of the content of semen.

The exact cause of prostate cancer is not known. But there are risks that increase the chances of a person getting prostate cancer.

Men that are older are at higher risks of getting prostate cancer. That’s because as a man grows older the prostate enlarges. And when the prostate enlarges it could end up as prostate cancer. But this doesn’t happen in all cases.

Another risk factor is where a man is from. White men develop prostate cancer less than African Americans. African Americans develop prostate cancer twice as much as white men.

A person with a family history of prostate cancer is also at higher risk. Lifestyle as well is also a good risk factor for developing prostate cancer. Men that smoke a lot and have a sedentary lifestyle are also at higher risks.

 

Types of Prostate Cancer 

Adenocarcinoma

Adenocarcinomas are the most common types of prostate cancer. They make up about 95-99% of all prostate cancer cases. There are actually two types: acinar and ductal adenocarcinoma. Most adenocarcinomas are acinar and very few are ductal.

Acinar type develops in acini cells. And it affects the level of PSA (prostate-specific antigen), it usually increases its levels. Acini lines the gland and helps produce the fluid that would become semen. Ductal type, on the other hand, doesn’t really affect the levels of PSA. Which makes it difficult to detect this type of adenocarcinoma.

Sarcomas

Just a very percentage of prostate cancer are sarcomas. This type of cancer develops in soft tissues. Example of soft tissues in the body is muscles and also nerves. Bone is not soft tissue. Soft tissues all over the body. This is why cancer of soft tissue can develop in any part of the body. The bad thing about this cancer type is that they spread quite fast. And can spread to just about any other part of the body. Prostate sarcomas are very difficult to detect. They do not usually change the levels at PSA. That’s why it’s even more difficult to detect.

Neuroendocrine Tumors

These tumors are also known as carcinoids. This type of tumor actually grows slowly. And they originate from the GI tract. Thereafter they spread to other parts of the body. Such as the prostate gland. This type is very rare. They are also known not to affect PSA levels. And they have also found out that it’s also hereditary in nature. Accompanied with this tumor type is carcinoid tumor. It presents with symptoms such as dizziness, fast heartbeat, flushing of the skin and also diarrhea.

Small Cell Carcinoma

This is another type of neuroendocrine tumor. They are more common than NETs. Also, this type of carcinoma is very aggressive. And, at the same time, there are no changes with the PSA levels. They make up less than 1% of prostate cancer. The prognosis of this type is very poor and the estimated life expectancy of the patient is usually less than 1 year.

Transitional Cell Carcinoma

This type of prostate cancer is very interesting. It starts from surrounding structures of the prostate gland and then transitions to the prostate gland. Surrounding structures such as the urethra and the urinary bladder are affected. With transitional cell carcinoma, there’s blood in the urine. And there’s also difficulty urinating. In treating this type of prostate cancer advanced treatment methods may be needed.

Squamous Cell Carcinoma

This type does not start in the prostate gland itself. Instead, it starts in flat cells that cover the prostate gland. This type is also very aggressive.

 

Grades of Prostate Cancer

After your doctor gets samples from your prostate gland it’s checked under the microscope. And then your doctor would grade it. Grading is simply to know how quick the cancer would spread or grow.

Gleason Score

This is the most commonly used grading system for prostate cancer. It looks at the different patterns of the cancer cells. And it’s graded from 1-5. Since there are many samples the doctor would check for the most common grade among the samples. The doctor would also check for the highest grade among the samples. Your final Gleason score is gotten by adding these two.

Gleason score of 6 means that the cancer of the person is slowly growing and it most likely wouldn’t spread.

Gleason score of 7 means that the cancer is in-between. It’s in-between slow growing and also fast-growing cancer. This is known as an intermediate grade.

Gleason score of 8-10 means that the cancer is fast growing. And it would most likely spread at a fast rate. This is known as a fast grade.

We sure have researchers to thank for doing a job well done in identifying the types. It’s a great start. Really. And also for still trying to come up with other types of prostate cancer. All thanks to the doctors can now effectively treat the different types of prostate cancer.

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